Petrochemicals are a set of very specific chemical compounds, which can be made from oil, natural gas, coal or other sources. The vast majority of petrochemicals, however, are derived from oil or natural gas. Oil and natural gas are used as feedstock (i.e., the main raw material used in the manufacture of a product) to make approximately 99% of U.S. petrochemicals. Some common everyday items made from petrochemicals are: paints, adhesives, bags, credit cards, boats, clothing, tires, phones, soap, plastic, etc. Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils. Petrochemicals feed stock like ethylene and propylene can also be produced directly by cracking crude oil without the need of using refined products of crude oil such as naphtha.
Petroleum refineries are very large industrial complexes that involve many different processing units and auxiliary facilities such as utility units and storage tanks. Each refinery has its own unique arrangement and combination of refining processes largely determined by the refinery location, desired products and economic considerations. An oil refinery is considered an essential part of the downstream side of the petroleum industry. Areas on oil refineries require extreme protection and insulation due to their drastic fluctuation of temperature and pressure intensive jobs. Protective coatings should be and are used in such instances to protect the integrity of said structures.
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